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1234 Main St.
Newport, Kentucky 41071
07/19/2019 9:00AM

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agent

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Agency Name

IMPORTANT INFORMATION

The Report contains a Grouping of Major Concerns (RED), Moderate Concerns (ORANGE), and Minor Concerns (BLUE) noted that, in the inspector’s professional opinion, need further evaluation, repair, or attention. The colors and classifications are done for illustrative purposes and convenience. All issues should be considered and evaluated equally.

A Major Concern (Material Defect) is a specific issue with a system or component of a residential property that may have a significant, adverse impact on the value of the property, or that poses an unreasonable risk (Unsafe) to people or property.

Concerns that inevitably lead to, or directly cause (if not addressed in a timely manner) adverse impact on the value of the home, or unreasonable risk (Unsafe) to people or property are considered Moderate Concerns or Minor Concerns. The fact that a system or component is near, at or beyond the end of its normal useful life is not, in itself, a material defect, but may be listed as a Major Concern because of associated cost.

Unsafe is defined as “A condition in a readily accessible, installed system or component that is judged to be a significant risk of bodily injury during normal, day-to-day use; the risk may be due to damage, deterioration, improper installation, or a change in accepted residential construction standards.”

The Grouping is not intended to determine which items may need to be addressed per the contractual requirements of the sale of the property. All items of concern to you should be addressed as deemed necessary by you. Any areas of uncertainty regarding the contract should be clarified by consulting an attorney.

The complete report may include additional information of concern. It is recommended that you read the complete report. The entire Inspection Report, including the InterNACHI Standards of Practice, limitations and scope of Inspection, and Pre-Inspection Agreement must be carefully read to fully assess the findings of the inspection.

It is strongly recommended that you have appropriately licensed contractors evaluate each concern listed in the report further, along with the entire system, for additional concerns that may be outside our area of expertise or the scope of our inspection before the close of escrow. Please call us for any clarifications or further questions.

All inaccessible areas and all areas with accessibility limitations listed in this report should be made accessible and an inspection of those areas should take place prior to closing on the home. All areas with other limitations should be evaluated by appropriate contractors prior to closing on the home.

This report is the property of the client for whom it was prepared. Any unauthorized use or sharing of this report can leave the client vulnerable to liability. This report should only be shared as it pertains to the purchase contract of the client. Should the client choose not to buy this house the seller does not have the right to share or distribute this report. The disclosure form for the property should be updated appropriately and the report discarded.

CONCERN CATEGORIES:

MINOR CONCERN

  • Maintenance items, DIY items, or recommended upgrades will fall into this category. These concerns will ultimately lead to Moderate Concerns and Major Concerns if left neglected for extended periods of time. These Concerns may be more straightforward to remedy.

MODERATE CONCERN

  • Most items will fall into this category. Concerns that inevitably lead to, or directly cause (if not addressed in a timely manner) adverse impact on the value of the home, or unreasonable risk (Unsafe) to people or property. These concerns typically require further evaluation or may be more complicated to remedy.

MAJOR CONCERN

  • A specific issue with a system or component of a residential property that may have a significant, adverse impact on the value of the property, or that poses an unreasonable risk to people or property. These Concerns are often imminent or may be very difficult or expensive to remedy.

1 - Inspection Details

Type of Building
Single Family
Style
Cape Cod
Approximate Square Footage
6000+
Garage
Attached, 3 Car
Occupancy
Vacant
Weather Conditions
Clear
Temperature (approximate)
35 Fahrenheit (F)
Ground Conditions
Damp
Ancillary Services
Wood Destroying Insect Report, Radon Testing
In Attendance
Client, Client Family
Limitations: Present Condition

The condition of the premises may change after the date of inspection due to many factors such as weather, moisture, leaks, actions taken by the owner or others, or the passage of time. Seasonal changes such as wind-driven rain, ice, and humidity may bring some defects to light that were not noted during your home inspection. Basements and attics that were dry at the time of the inspection can be damp or leak in later weeks or months. This report reflects the condition of the premises at the time of the inspection.

Limitations: Visible Limitations

The inspection is limited to visible and accessible components and areas only. Due to insurance restrictions, we are not permitted to operate any main shutoff valves (water or gas) or switch on any circuit breakers that may be shut off. We also can not move personal items, panels, furniture, equipment, plant life, soil, snow, ice or debris that obstructs access or visibility. We also cannot allow you, the buyer, to move any items or operate any shutoff valves or breakers in the home. No disassembly of equipment, opening of walls, moving of furniture, appliances or stored items, or excavation was performed. Some items or areas may not be inspected if they are blocked by furniture or stored items.  Please note that we cannot make phone calls or wait for someone to arrive while on site regarding any items that have not been properly prepared. The property was inspected regardless of limitations or hindrances. All components and conditions which by the nature of their location are concealed, camouflaged or difficult to inspect are excluded from the report.

Limitations: Vacant Home

Vacant homes that have not been occupied for some time may not reflect actual living conditions during the inspection. Plumbing or electrical systems may present damage once place under the normal strain of day to day life but will not present during a short inspection. 

The presence or evidence of the following environmental hazards shall not be addressed in the report: (1) Air-borne hazards; (2) The air quality or the sickness of any building, including, but not limited to, the presence of absence of all manner of biological activity, such as hazardous plants, insects, birds, pets, mammals, and other flora and fauna, and their consequent physical damage, toxicity, noxiousness, odors, waste products, and wood destroying animals and fungi; (3) Animals, insects, or rodents; (4) Asbestos; (5) Carcinogens, including but not limited to radon; (6) Contaminants in soil, water, and air; (7) Electro-magnetic fields; (8) Hazardous materials including, but not limited to, the presence of lead in paint; (9) Hazardous waste conditions; (10) Mold, mildew, or fungus; (11) Hazardous plants or animals including, but not limited to wood destroying organisms, wood destroying insects, or diseases harmful to humans including molds or mold-like substances; (12) Noise; (13) Potability of any water; (14) Toxins; (15) Urea formaldehyde; (16) The effectiveness of any system installed or method utilized to control or remove suspected environmental hazards; and (17) Compliance with regulatory requirements (codes, regulations, laws, ordinances, etc.), any manufacturer's recalls, conformance with manufacturer installation or instructions, or any information for consumer protection purposes. (32 Ky.R. 2403; 33 Ky.R. 780; eff. 10-6-2006; 41 Ky.R. 626; 1374; 1554; eff. 2-6-2015.)

2 - Orientation Details

Included Photos

Your report includes many photographs. Some pictures are informational and of a general view, to help you understand where the inspector has been, what was looked at and the condition of the item or area at the time of the inspection. Some of the pictures may be of problem areas, these are to help you better understand what is documented in this report and to help you see areas or items that you normally would not see. Not all problem areas or conditions will be supported with photos. Inversely the included photos may not show all problem areas or conditions. A representative example of photos may be used.

Location References

For the purpose of this report all directions are given as if you are standing facing the front of the house. Items listed as Multiple Locations may not directly reference all effected locations. Examples may be given that should not be construed as the only affected areas. Further evaluation will need to take place to determine every effected location. 

Elevation Images

3 - Exterior

Siding / Trim Material
Brick, Wood
Walkway/Patio/Driveway Material
Asphalt, Concrete
Appurtenance Type(s)/Material
Wood, Concrete, Deck, Patio
Site Topography
Moderate Grade, Front, Rear
Walkways, Patios & Driveways: Drains Toward The Home
The driveway has a negative slope and drains towards the structure. The drain will need to be kept clean and in good repair to prevent water entry into the garage / basement.
Limitations: Underground Drainage

Underground drainage is not visible and beyond the scope of a home inspection. We can not determine the presence or lack of,  nor the operating efficiency of any underground drainage system on the property.

I. The inspector shall inspect: A. the exterior wall-covering materials, flashing and trim; B. all exterior doors; C. adjacent walkways and driveways; D. stairs, steps, stoops, stairways and ramps; E. porches, patios, decks, balconies and carports; F. railings, guards and handrails; G. the eaves, soffits and fascia; H. a representative number of windows; and I. vegetation, surface drainage, retaining walls and grading of the property, where they may adversely affect the structure due to moisture intrusion. II. The inspector shall describe: A. the type of exterior wall-covering materials. III. The inspector shall report as in need of correction: A. any improper spacing between intermediate balusters, spindles and rails. IV. The inspector is not required to: A. inspect or operate screens, storm windows, shutters, awnings, fences, outbuildings, or exterior accent lighting. B. inspect items that are not visible or readily accessible from the ground, including window and door flashing. C. inspect or identify geological, geotechnical, hydrological or soil conditions. D. inspect recreational facilities or playground equipment. E. inspect seawalls, breakwalls or docks. F. inspect erosion-control or earth-stabilization measures. G. inspect for safety-type glass. H. inspect underground utilities. I. inspect underground items. J. inspect wells or springs. K. inspect solar, wind or geothermal systems. L. inspect swimming pools or spas. M. inspect wastewater treatment systems, septic systems or cesspools. N. inspect irrigation or sprinkler systems. O. inspect drainfields or dry wells. P. determine the integrity of multiple-pane window glazing or thermal window seals.

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3.2.1 - Siding, Flashing & Trim

Evidence of Water Intrusion
Bay Window Area

Siding showed signs of water intrusion. Water and wood rot is visible inside the window cladding, behind and below the trim, and some trim is rotted. One area was repaired very recently and the paint and filler was still wet. Water stains were visible on the inside of this area. The windows and some portions of the siding will likely need replacement. A complete and invasive evaluation to determine the cause of the water entry and the extent of the damage is necessary

SEE ALSO ROOF - There are no gutters installed in this area which has likely exacerbated any water issues.

Contractor Qualified Professional
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3.2.2 - Siding, Flashing & Trim

Gap in Siding
Attic Rear

Gaps in the siding can allow moisture, insects, or rodents to penetrate the structure. Repair the gap in the siding.

Contractor Qualified Professional
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3.2.3 - Siding, Flashing & Trim

Rotting Siding / Trim
Multiple Locations

Rotting siding / trim can allow water entry which can cause hidden damage. Areas above the installed attic vents are rotted and allowing water entry. Have a qualified contractor locate and replace all rotted siding / trim on the house. The areas behind any rotted areas should be fully evaluated for water damage and repaired as necessary.

Hammer Carpentry Contractor
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3.2.4 - Siding, Flashing & Trim

Damaged Brick
Multiple Locations

The brick is damaged. Once the brick face has come detached the brick is no longer sealed. Water will easily absorb and release from the area. Water can absorb into the home. The condition will only worsen and can damage subsequent bricks. Rebuilding areas will be necessary as replacing the bricks is the only resolution.

Brick Masonry, Concrete, Brick & Stone
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3.2.5 - Siding, Flashing & Trim

Caulk is Missing Around Windows / Doors
Multiple Locations

Missing caulk can allow moisture entry. Install caulk. 

Tools Handyman/DIY
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3.2.6 - Siding, Flashing & Trim

Caulk Has Aged
Multiple Locations

Caulk has aged or the surrounding materials have shrunken leaving gaps that can allow moisture penetration. Recommend removing the old caulk and applying new caulk.

Tools Handyman/DIY
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3.4.1 - Walkways, Patios & Driveways

Drains Towards the House - Patio / Sidewalk
Front

When a hard surface such as a sidewalk or patio slopes toward the house it can direct a very large amount of water towards the foundation. Over time this water can cause foundation damage. SEE ALSO FOUNDATION - Foundation cracks, water entry, and past waterproofing is noted in the adjacent area in the basement. SEE ALSO GRADING - The grade needs adjustment and this sidewalk may prevent properly correcting the grade without removal and replacement.

There are several options to repair this condition. 

1. Slab jack or lift the concrete. 

2. Remove and replace the concrete. 

3. Remove the concrete and install pavers/bricks and gravel or some other type of system more easily manipulated.

Contact a qualified contractor to make the repair you choose.

Gardening shovel tool shape Concrete Contractor
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3.6.1 - Decks, Balconies, & Porches

Deck - Unstable Support
Rear Right

One of more areas of the deck support is unstable. The walkway deck is significantly deteriorated. The disconnected downspout is contributing to a settlement issue that has caused the deck to pull away from the house. Bolts have been removed, bolts are loose, joists are shifting away from the ledger, the ledger is split, and at least one post is loose. This could cause a safety hazard and further deterioration of the deck. Recommend qualified deck contractor evaluate and repair. Replacement is likely the best option to provide a safe structure.

House front 1 Deck Contractor
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3.6.2 - Decks, Balconies, & Porches

Flashing is not Installed Where The Ledger Board Attaches to House
Rear Left

There is no flashing installed at the ledger board that extends over the door. This area is wood framing below with a stucco cover and water entry behind the stucco is likely in this configuration. Lack of flashing at the deck ledger can result in water entry between the ledger board and the house, or even into the structure itself. Over time this can lead to extensive damage to the house framing and cause the connection of the deck to be weakened. 

Recommend the installation of flashing by a qualified professional.

House front 1 Deck Contractor
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3.6.3 - Decks, Balconies, & Porches

Improper Room Addition Construction Practices
Rear

Deck was observed to be installed in a manner that is not recommended. A room structure has been added to the deck without any additional load bearing provisions having been added. A portion of the wall structure that also supports the roof above is supported only by the decking boards. No joists have been doubled and the wall does not rest on a joist. Stress cracking can be seen at the brick veneer and the foundation in immediate area.

A structural engineer needs to evaluate the entire roof structure and supporting deck to provide all recommendations for proper structural support. A qualified contractor should implement all recommended repairs. The engineer should return to certify all installed repairs.

House construction Structural Engineer
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3.6.4 - Decks, Balconies, & Porches

Open Stair Risers
Rear Left Side

Children or pets can fall through the stairs, especially small children that are still crawling. Have a qualified contractor close off the riser opening so that a 4 inch sphere can not pass.

Here is a video demonstrating how to retrofit closing off the stair risers.

House front 1 Deck Contractor
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3.6.5 - Decks, Balconies, & Porches

Railing Unsafe
Multiple Locations

There is an unsafe opening in the railing. The spacing on the rail should not exceed 4". An opening greater than 4" is a serious safety hazard especially for children. Have a qualified contractor make further evaluation and repair as necessary

House front 1 Deck Contractor
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3.6.6 - Decks, Balconies, & Porches

Railing Height is Insufficient
Rear Left Side

The handrail height is not sufficient to prevent a person from falling. Raise the handrail to conform to current safety standards.

House front 1 Deck Contractor
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3.6.7 - Decks, Balconies, & Porches

Ledger Board is Attached to Brick Veneer
Rear

Deck load bearing capacity is reduced. The deck may damage the brick veneer. Have the deck construction reviewed by professional deck building company familiar with all applicable building codes regarding deck construction. Click the link below and see page 15. The construction of this deck may predate any restrictions but it is not recommended that room or roof structures be added to this area. Monitor the brick veneer for cracking. If cracking is noted contact a structural engineer.

Deck Construction Manual

Mag glass Monitor
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3.6.8 - Decks, Balconies, & Porches

Missing Fasteners
Multiple Locations

Some fasteners are missing in some areas. Add joist hangar nails to the open holes in the joist hangars. 

House front 1 Deck Contractor
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3.6.9 - Decks, Balconies, & Porches

Stairs Not Securely Attached
Multiple Locations

The stairs are not secured to the deck. The stairs have come loose and the stringer is cracked. Recommend rebuilding the stairs so that they are properly supported at the deck.

House front 1 Deck Contractor
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3.8.1 - Vegetation, Grading, & Drainage

Negative Grading
Front

Grading is sloping towards the home in some areas. Directing more moisture towards the foundation increases the risk of moisture intrusion and subsequent foundation issues. SEE ALSO FOUNDATION - Foundation cracks, water entry, and past waterproofing is noted in the adjacent area in the basement.

Water should be directed away from all standing foundations to prevent potential water intrusion. The drainage strategy of the foundation is important. The minimum recommendation is 1/2in / Foot for 10 feet in grade slope. The soil should not be raised more than 4 inches below the top of the foundation.

Recommend regrading the area to achieve a slope away from the home. If regrading is not possible, add drain tile to re-direct water away from the home.

Here is a helpful article discussing negative grading.

Triangle Grading Contractor
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3.8.2 - Vegetation, Grading, & Drainage

Soil is Raised Higher Than the Foundation
Garage Front

High soil levels surrounding the house can cause water damage to wood framing and brick and create an easy access point for termite infestation or mice. SEE ALSO WALL STRUCTURE - Damage was noted to the wall structure and termite infestation is noted in this area.

Recommend lowering the soil level to 4 inches or more below the top of the foundation. The proper slope of grade away from the house should be maintained. The minimum recommendation is 1/2in / Foot for 10 feet in grade slope.  If grade slope can not be maintained, add drain tile to re-direct water away from the home.

Here is an article discussing foundation heights.

Yard scissors Landscaping Contractor
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3.8.3 - Vegetation, Grading, & Drainage

Tree in Contact With The Building
Multiple Locations

Trimming the tree away from the building will allow proper airflow to the building and prevent squirrels or other critters from easily accessing the home. Trim the tree a minimum of 3 feet from the home.

Yard scissors Tree Service

4 - Roof

Inspection Method
Ladder, Drone, Limitations
Roof Style
Gable
Roof Material(s)
Asphalt, 3 - Tab
Valley Style
Open Metal
Here is a document that details the correct installation procedure for each type of valley.
Gutter Material/Type
Aluminum, K Style
Roof Drainage Location
Below Grade
Coverings: At Least Two Layers of Roof Covering
All Locations

Shingles can weigh between 2 and 4 or more pounds per square foot per layer. A roof structure is typically designed to handle 20 pound per square foot. When you take into consideration the roof sheeting materials and add water or snow loads, three layers of shingles could quickly cause the roof to be overloaded.

This can add extra weight on the roof structure. Lead to decreased shingle life by overheating the shingles and reduce impact resistance from hail. Accelerated moisture damage to the roof sheeting can occur. Insurance companies may have specific rules/requirements regarding more than one layer of shingles. You may want to check with your insurance company to be sure this will be an acceptable installation.

At the next roof replacement all layers of shingles should be removed.

Gutters / Downspouts: Orangeburg Piping
Multiple Locations

The underground drainage pipe appears to be Orangeburg piping, all of which is considered to be at the end of its life (It was most widely used in the 1950's and 1960's). Orangeburg piping is essentially tar - impregnated cardboard and over time will crush and deteriorate. If this piping is prevalent for all of the downspout drains or any of the house sewer line, significant repairs may be necessary. If left damaged and unrepaired these drains can damage the foundation. SEE ALSO FOUNDATION - Water entry, foundation cracks, and previous waterproofing is noted in the basement.

Here is a good article discussing Orangeburg piping.

Limitations: Below Grade Drainage
Underground drains are beyond the scope of this inspection. In older homes these drains may tie directly into the sewer system of the home. It is recommended that all below ground drains be monitored for clogging or overflowing. Also be sure to note any foundation movement or cracks in the house near the underground drains. If any deficiency is noted with the drains or the house near the drains, remove the downspout from the underground pipe immediately and begin troubleshooting for blockage or damage. Here is a good article further detailing underground drains.
Limitations: Inspection Method - Drone

A drone was used to photograph the roof and the top of the chimney. This does not constitute a full roof or chimney inspection, only an attempt to view the area for major defects that may be apparent from above. This was done because no access to these areas was possible otherwise. This should be considered a tool and not a replacement for walking the roof. It is strongly recommended that you have the roof and/chimney fully evaluated by a licensed and insured contractor to provide a thorough inspection.

Limitations: Rain, Ice, or Moisture Created Unsafe Conditions

Rain, ice, or moisture prevented a full inspection of this section.

Limitations: Steep Pitch

The roof pitch was too steep to safely walk on. We used other methods to inspect the roof. 

I. The inspector shall inspect from ground level or the eaves: A. the roof-covering materials; B. the gutters; C. the downspouts; D. the vents, flashing, skylights, chimney, and other roof penetrations; and E. the general structure of the roof from the readily accessible panels, doors or stairs. II. The inspector shall describe: A. the type of roof-covering materials. III. The inspector shall report as in need of correction: A. observed indications of active roof leaks. IV. The inspector is not required to: A. walk on any roof surface. B. predict the service life expectancy. C. inspect underground downspout diverter drainage pipes. D. remove snow, ice, debris or other conditions that prohibit the observation of the roof surfaces. E. move insulation. F. inspect antennae, satellite dishes, lightning arresters, de-icing equipment, or similar attachments. G. walk on any roof areas that appear, in the inspectors opinion, to be unsafe. H. walk on any roof areas if doing so might, in the inspector's opinion, cause damage. I. perform a water test. J. warrant or certify the roof. K. confirm proper fastening or installation of any roof-covering material.

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4.2.1 - Coverings

Near End of Life
All Locations

This roof shows one or more conditions consistent with being near end of life. Damaged shingles, granule loss, loose flashing, and persistent leaking at the garage is noted. Budget to replace the roof in the near future. If obtaining a roofing inspection, be certain the roofing company provides a written remaining life estimate; if any. If replacement is not opted for at this time a full evaluation to determine necessary immediate repairs should take place and subsequent yearly inspections take place.
Here is a good article with included videos about roof life expectancy.

Roof Roofing Professional
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4.3.1 - Flashings

Separated / Gaps
Rear Right

Flashings observed to be separated or have a gap which can lead to water intrusion and/or mold. When the roof structure was added for the deck a pan flashing area was added but was not installed below the window sill. The seam where the metal meets the sill is vulnerable to water entry unless precautions were taken. Recommend a qualified roofing contractor evaluate and repair.

Roof Roofing Professional
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4.3.2 - Flashings

Deteriorated Boot Flashings
Multiple Locations

The purpose of the boot flashing is to keep water on the surface of the roof where a penetration exists. Deteriorated boot flashing can allow water entry and subsequent damage. It is also a sign that the roof is aging. These flashings typically last 12 - 15 years before beginning to deteriorate.

Roof Roofing Professional
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4.6.1 - Gutters / Downspouts

Gutters Need Cleaning
Multiple Locations

Debris has accumulated in the gutters. Clogged gutters can cause overflow and introduce excessive water around the foundation. Recommend cleaning to facilitate water flow.

Here is a DIY resource for cleaning your gutters. 

Tools Handyman/DIY
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4.6.2 - Gutters / Downspouts

Downspout Discharges to Roof Surface
Multiple Locations

This is common practice done for aesthetic reasons but is not recommended. This can deteriorate the roof leading to early leaks and also void the shingle manufacturer warranty.

Recommend routing the gutter so it empties into the gutter below.

Gutter Gutter Contractor
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4.6.3 - Gutters / Downspouts

Downspouts Not Fully Connected
Rear Right Corner

Leakage can occur damaging the house or foundation over time. SEE ALSO DECK - Significant damage has occurred to the adjacent deck.

Recommend fully connecting all downspouts.

Tools Handyman/DIY
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4.6.4 - Gutters / Downspouts

Gutter Damaged
Multiple Locations

Gutters were damaged. This can result in excessive moisture in the soil at the foundation, which can lead to foundation/structural movement or water entry and damage to the structure. SEE ALSO WALL STRUCTURE - Damage to the adjacent wall structure is noted and termite activity is noted in the attic in the adjacent area of one damage portion.

Recommend a qualified contractor evaluate and repair. 

Gutter Gutter Contractor
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4.6.5 - Gutters / Downspouts

Gutter Leakage
Multiple Locations

Gutters were observed to be leaking in one or more areas. This can result in excessive moisture in the soil at the foundation or deterioration to the deck below. This can also cause ice buildup and become a safety hazard. Recommend a qualified contractor evaluate and repair gutters to proper functionality. 

Gutter Gutter Contractor
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4.6.6 - Gutters / Downspouts

Gutters Missing
Left Side

There are no gutters present on the bay window. There is significant water damage noted to the trim and windows and evidence of water intrusion in the area below.  Gutters are recommended because they collect rain water from the roof and direct it away form the building. 

Install an overhang (Soffit) of 12 inches and attach gutters to the overhang.

Gutter Gutter Contractor
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4.6.7 - Gutters / Downspouts

Underground Drains Show Signs of Clogging
Front

An accurate determination can not be made until a period of active rain. If the drains are clogged, the ability to clean them will be dependent on the material the drains are made of. PVC is likely the only material that can be cleaned. Corrugated plastic or Orangeburg piping will most likely be damaged by any cleaning efforts and need to be completely replaced. Monitoring during rains is recommended. The results will determine the next step. If they are clogged we recommend discharging them directly to the surface 4 - 6 feet away from the home until repairs are completed.

Pipes Plumbing Contractor

5 - Attic, Insulation & Ventilation

Inspection Method
Partially Inside Attic, Limitations
Attic Entry Type/Location
Bedroom, Hatch
Roof Structure Material/Type
Truss Framing, Rafter Framing, Plywood Sheathing
Ventilation Type
Soffit Vents, Roof Vents
Insulation Type
Blown, Fiberglass
Insulation Depth
4 - 8 Inches


Insulation Estimated R-Value
19

Insulation Recommendations:

Attic | R38 - R60

Cathedral Ceiling | R30 - R38

Wall Cavity Insulation | R13 - R15

Wall Sheathing | R2.5 - R6

Floor | R25 - R30

-Information from energy.gov

Blown cellulose is R-3.2 to 3.8 per inch - Blown fiberglass is R-2.2 to 2.7 per inch

Ventilation: Powered Attic Fan Present

A powered attic fan is installed. These fans are not recommended unless an accurate balance of intake ventilation is provided for the amount of exhaust ventilation (CFM) the fan provides. Other exhaust ventilation should be factored in as well. This type of system will mostly only draw conditioned air up from the home if the system is not accurately balanced. The end result can be reduced efficiency and in extreme cases moisture issues in the attic. 

Limitations: Some Attic Areas Are Not Accessible

The home has multiple attic spaces or areas. Some of the attic spaces do not have an access point or the access point was blocked.

Limitations: Insulation Limited Attic Entry

Insulation installed in the attic limited entry. Entering the attic space would result in damaging the insulation. The attic was viewed from the hatch or partially entered.

Limitations: Insulation R-Value

Any estimates of insulation R values or depths are rough average values. Insulation/ventilation type and levels in concealed areas, like exterior walls, are not inspected. Insulation and vapor barriers are not disturbed and no destructive tests (such as cutting openings in walls to look for insulation) are performed.

I. The inspector shall inspect: A. insulation in unfinished spaces, including attics, crawlspaces and foundation areas; B. ventilation of unfinished spaces, including attics, crawlspaces and foundation areas; and C. mechanical exhaust systems in the kitchen, bathrooms and laundry area. II. The inspector shall describe: A. the type of insulation observed; and B. the approximate average depth of insulation observed at the unfinished attic floor area or roof structure. III. The inspector shall report as in need of correction: A. the general absence of insulation or ventilation in unfinished spaces. IV. The inspector is not required to: A. enter the attic or any unfinished spaces that are not readily accessible, or where entry could cause damage or, in the inspector's opinion, pose a safety hazard. B. move, touch or disturb insulation. C. move, touch or disturb vapor retarders. D. break or otherwise damage the surface finish or weather seal on or around access panels or covers. E. identify the composition or R-value of insulation material. F. activate thermostatically operated fans. G. determine the types of materials used in insulation or wrapping of pipes, ducts, jackets, boilers or wiring. H. determine the adequacy of ventilation.

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5.2.1 - Attic Entry

Hatch is Not Insulated
Bedroom

Air can travel from the home into the attic. This can cause condensation or moisture issues and is very inefficient.

Recommend weather-stripping and insulating the attic hatch.

House construction Insulation Contractor
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5.3.1 - Roof Structure

Evidence of Leaking
Garage Front

There is evidence of an active roof leak and subsequent attempts to mask the leak. Plastic sheeting has been added to catch the water and prevent damage to the drywall below. The roof leak should be professionally repaired (caulk or sealants are not recommended) and the extent of the damage determined. It is best if all damaged materials located within the living space be replaced. This will prevent future mold growth and also afford the ability to determine if a leak reappears at a later time.

Roof Roofing Professional
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5.5.1 - Insulation

Damaged / Displaced / Compressed
Multiple Locations

Insulation appears to have been damaged / displaced / compressed by rodent and persons working in the attic. Compressed insulation does not function properly. The heat loss and cost of energy is increased every time the insulation thickness (R-value) is reduced. At a minimum the insulation should be installed to a uniform thickness. It is recommended that levels be brought up to modern standards (See Above).

House construction Insulation Contractor
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5.6.1 - Dryer Connections

Duct is Missing
Laundry Area

The dryer vent does not extend to the exterior of the home. This will allow clogging and moisture to buildup inside the walls in this area.
Recommend a qualified contractor fully extend the dryer vent to the exterior.
Fire HVAC Professional
Credit
Comment
5.7.1 - Vapor Retarders

Improper Installation - Vapor Barrier Exposed
Basement

The paper vapor barrier should always be covered by drywall of some other non-combustible material. This vapor barrier is flammable. Cover the insulation or remove it in the exposed areas.

Putty knife Drywall Contractor
Credit
Comment
5.8.1 - Exhaust Systems

No Exhaust Fan Installed
Master Bathroom

Humidity buildup can be very inefficient on your cooling system and can lead to mold or other damage over time. All bathrooms are recommended to have exhaust fans to expel humidity to the exterior of the home.
Recommend a qualified contractor install a bath van that exhausts to the exterior of the home.
Contractor Qualified Professional
Credit
Comment
5.8.2 - Exhaust Systems

Inoperable Bath Vent
2nd Floor Rear Bathroom

The fan in this area is not working. Humidity buildup can be very inefficient on your cooling system and can lead to mold or other damage over time. Recommend repairing or installing an exhaust fan that exhausts directly to the exterior of the home.
Contractor Qualified Professional

6 - Doors, Windows & Interior

Floor Covering Material(s)
Carpet, Hardwood, Tile
Wall Material
Drywall
Ceiling Material
Drywall
Window Material
Vinyl
Window Type
Casement, Double-hung
Window Manufactured Date / Estimated Age
5 - 30
Window Manufacturer
Unknown
Dryer Power Source
220 Electric
Range/Oven Fuel Source
Electric
Garage Door: Material
Wood
Garage Door: Opener
Liftmaster, Chain Drive, Sears

I. The inspector shall inspect: A. a representative number of doors and windows by opening and closing them; B. floors, walls and ceilings; C. stairs, steps, landings, stairways and ramps; D. railings, guards and handrails; and E. garage vehicle doors and the operation of garage vehicle door openers, using normal operating controls. II. The inspector shall describe: A. a garage vehicle door as manually-operated or installed with a garage door opener. III. The inspector shall report as in need of correction: A. improper spacing between intermediate balusters, spindles and rails for steps, stairways, guards and railings; B. photo-electric safety sensors that did not operate properly; and C. any window that was obviously fogged or displayed other evidence of broken seals. IV. The inspector is not required to: A. inspect paint, wallpaper, window treatments or finish treatments. B. inspect floor coverings or carpeting. C. inspect central vacuum systems. D. inspect for safety glazing. E. inspect security systems or components. F. evaluate the fastening of islands, countertops, cabinets, sink tops or fixtures. G. move furniture, stored items, or any coverings, such as carpets or rugs, in order to inspect the concealed floor structure. H. move suspended-ceiling tiles. I. inspect or move any household appliances. J. inspect or operate equipment housed in the garage, except as otherwise noted. K. verify or certify the proper operation of any pressure-activated auto-reverse or related safety feature of a garage door. L. operate or evaluate any security bar release and opening mechanisms, whether interior or exterior, including their compliance with local, state or federal standards. M. operate any system, appliance or component that requires the use of special keys, codes, combinations or devices. N. operate or evaluate self-cleaning oven cycles, tilt guards/latches, or signal lights. O. inspect microwave ovens or test leakage from microwave ovens. P. operate or examine any sauna, steamgenerating equipment, kiln, toaster, ice maker, coffee maker, can opener, bread warmer, blender, instant hot-water dispenser, or other small, ancillary appliances or devices. Q. inspect elevators. R. inspect remote controls. S. inspect appliances. T. inspect items not permanently installed. U. discover firewall compromises. V. inspect pools, spas or fountains. W. determine the adequacy of whirlpool or spa jets, water force, or bubble effects. X. determine the structural integrity or leakage of pools or spas.

Credit
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6.2.1 - Garage Door

Auto Reverse Sensors Missing

The auto reverse sensor is missing. The opener may predate the inclusion of these sensors. This is a safety hazard to children and pets. Install a garage door opener with included safety sensors

Garage Garage Door Contractor
Credit
Comment
6.3.1 - Windows

Near End of Life
Multiple Locations

The windows as a whole shows signs of deterioration consistent with nearing the end of their useful life. A window contractor should be called to evaluate all of the windows in the home and discuss if repairs are possible or if replacement is recommended.

Be sure to review all other window concerns noted in this report. Some window concerns are noted in EXTERIOR / SIDING.

Window Window Repair and Installation Contractor
Credit
Comment
6.3.2 - Windows

Does Not Stay Open
Basement Rear

A window that does not stay open can be a safety hazard. Often times these windows have one or more damaged lift mechanisms or internal springs. The defect can also be temperamental where the window may slam shut at some times and fall slowly at other times. These windows should be repaired or replaced.
Window Window Repair and Installation Contractor
Credit
Comment
6.3.3 - Windows

Sill is Rotted
Multiple Locations

The previously installed window type is known to rot at the sill and allow water to enter into the wall. The only recommended repair is to have the entire window replaced. Be aware that other windows of the same size and age will likely begin to rot as well.

Replacement windows were added to the inside of the rotted windows and the rotting sill left in place. While this will lessen the possibility of water entry, the opportunity for water entry still exists. More concerning is that the area below was not evaluated at the time of window replacement for damage.

Have a qualified contractor replace all rotted sills. This also includes any sills that have had temporary repairs such as wood putty or caulk filler as these likely did not stop the water leaking completely. The area below should be evaluated for water damage at the time of replacement.

Hammer Carpentry Contractor
Credit
Comment
6.3.4 - Windows

Sash is Damaged
Multiple Locations

Some windows have damaged sashes. Some Anderson windows faced a class-action lawsuit for this very issue. We can not determine if these particular windows are involved in the class action. Replace any windows with damaged sashes.

Window Window Repair and Installation Contractor
Credit
Comment
6.3.5 - Windows

Lift Mechanism is Damaged
Master Bathroom

A damaged lift mechanism can prevent the window from staying open. This is also a sign of an aging window. This window should be repaired or replaced.

Window Window Repair and Installation Contractor
Credit
Comment
6.3.6 - Windows

Missing Screens
Multiple Locations

Window is missing a screen. This can allow insects to enter the home if the windows are opened.
Inquire with the seller if the screens are present. It is recommended that the seller install all stored screens prior to closing so you can verify they actually fit the windows and are present. For all missing screens have a qualified contractor install a screen. This may mean having some screens custom made.
Contractor Qualified Professional
Credit
Comment
6.3.7 - Windows

Decreased Functionality
Front Right Bedroom

Window has decreased functionality exhibiting conditions where opening or closing was very difficult. 

Window Window Repair and Installation Contractor
Credit
Comment
6.4.1 - Doors

Door Doesn't Latch
Multiple Locations

Door doesn't latch properly. Recommend repairing the latch and/or strike plate.

Tools Handyman/DIY
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Comment
6.5.1 - Floors

Moisture Damage
Basement

Floors had areas of visible moisture damage. SEE ALSO EXTERIOR - Concerns were noted with the deck ledger above this area.

Recommend a qualified flooring contractor evaluate & repair areas of moisture. 

Flooring Flooring Contractor
Credit
Comment
6.7.1 - Ceilings

Poor Patching
Basement Multiple Locations And Garage

Sub-standard drywall patching observed at time of inspection. Recommend professional repair and paint.

Putty knife Drywall Contractor
Credit
Comment
6.7.2 - Ceilings

Stain(s) on Ceiling
Exterior Deck

There is a stain on ceiling/wall that requires attention. This may represent a prior, periodic, or on-going leak/high moisture. We were unable to determine the cause. The source of the staining should be determined. Recommend further evaluation and action as necessary. All water damaged materials should be removed to prevent mold and allow future leaks to be more easily detected.

Contractor Qualified Professional
Credit
Comment
6.8.1 - Steps, Stairways & Railings

No Handrail Balusters
Basement

Staircase is missing a complete handrail with balusters. This is a safety hazard. Recommend a qualified contractor install a handrail. 

Hammer Carpentry Contractor
Credit
Comment
6.9.1 - Countertops & Cabinets

Countertop Not Secured
Basement

Kitchen countertop is not secure. Recommend qualified countertop contractor evaluate and secure countertop properly. 

House building Countertop Contractor

7 - Fireplace

Type
Direct Vent
Location
Living Room, Basement, Family Room
Present

We recommend that all wood burning fireplaces have a Level II Chimney Inspection performed by a CSIA certified chimney sweep prior to closing. The inspection of a chimney during a whole home inspection can account for less than 20% of the system.

I. The inspector shall inspect: A. readily accessible and visible portions of the fireplaces and chimneys; B. lintels above the fireplace openings; C. damper doors by opening and closing them, if readily accessible and manually operable; and D. cleanout doors and frames. II. The inspector shall describe: A. the type of fireplace. III. The inspector shall report as in need of correction: A. evidence of joint separation, damage or deterioration of the hearth, hearth extension or chambers; B. manually operated dampers that did not open and close; C. the lack of a smoke detector in the same room as the fireplace; D. the lack of a carbon-monoxide detector in the same room as the fireplace; and E. cleanouts not made of metal, pre-cast cement, or other non-combustible material. IV. The inspector is not required to: A. inspect the flue or vent system. B. inspect the interior of chimneys or flues, fire doors or screens, seals or gaskets, or mantels. C. determine the need for a chimney sweep. D. operate gas fireplace inserts. E. light pilot flames. F. determine the appropriateness of any installation. G. inspect automatic fuel-fed devices. H. inspect combustion and/or make-up air devices. I. inspect heat-distribution assists, whether gravity-controlled or fan-assisted. J. ignite or extinguish fires. K. determine the adequacy of drafts or draft characteristics. L. move fireplace inserts, stoves or firebox contents. M. perform a smoke test. N. dismantle or remove any component. O. perform a National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)-style inspection. P. perform a Phase I fireplace and chimney inspection.

Credit
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7.3.1 - Solid Fuel Heating Device (Fireplace, Woodstove)

Damper Inoperable
Basement

Damper was inoperable, which can prevent proper operation of the fireplace. Recommend a qualified fireplace contractor evaluate and repair.

Fireplace Chimney Repair Contractor
Credit
Comment
7.3.2 - Solid Fuel Heating Device (Fireplace, Woodstove)

In Need of Cleaning
Rear Living Room

Significant creosote buildup is noted. Recommend having the chimney cleaned by a qualified chimney sweep prior to using.

Fireplace Chimney Sweep
Credit
Comment
7.3.3 - Solid Fuel Heating Device (Fireplace, Woodstove)

Missing Mortar
Rear Living Room

Missing mortar can allow heat or embers into the chimney chase. Repair the mortar. 

Fireplace Chimney Repair Contractor
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Comment
7.5.1 - Smoke Detectors

Not Present

There is no smoke detector present in the same room the fireplace is located.

Tools Handyman/DIY
Credit
Comment
7.6.1 - Carbon Monoxide Detectors

Not Present

There is no carbon monoxide detector present in the same room the fireplace is located.

Tools Handyman/DIY

8 - Foundation & Structure

Foundation Type
Basement
Inspection Method
Fully Accessible, Limitations
Basement/Crawlspace Access Location
Interior Stairs
Foundation Material
Concrete
Floor Structure Material
Nominal Lumber
Past Waterproofing Methods Installed

Evidence of past waterproofing methods have been installed in this home. Inquire with the seller as to the history of these installations. Obtain all associated paperwork and warranty information. It is recommended that you contact the warranting company to determine transferability of the warranty and that the company is in fact still in business.

Sub-floor Material
Plank
Structural Beam Material
Steel
Structural Column Material
Steel
Basement/Crawlspace Floor
Concrete
Foundation Crack Guidelines

All foundations will have cracks. Some cracking is expected as the concrete dries and shrinks or minor settlement occurs. For the purpose of this report cracks will be classified as either Minor, Moderate, or Major. This classification is done solely based on the size of the crack and is not meant to represent an actual severity of the crack or potential ongoing risk. All foundation cracks should be evaluated by a professional and monitored for changing. Cracks may extend to hidden or invisible areas and change in size or worsen. Observing a crack over time is the only way to know if the issue is ongoing. Invasive evaluation is the only way to truly know the size of the entire crack. All cracks that can be filled to prevent water entry should be filled by a professional. All cracks that have chipping or have been filled with caulk or cement (unprofessionally) will be considered Moderate or Major and should be evaluated by a qualified professional.

Minor = ~1/8" or less

Moderate = ~1/8" - ~1/4"

Major = ~1/4" and larger

Floor Structure: Previous Repairs
Basement Right Side

Previous repairs have been made to the floor structure below the kitchen. A steel beam has been added and a double beam has been added. Inquire with the seller as to the reason for these repairs and obtain design documents for this repair. If design documents are not available have the repair evaluated by a structural engineer.

Limitations: Finished Basement
Most of the walls, joists, ductwork, plumbing, electrical, etc. was not visible in the basement because it was finished.

I. The inspector shall inspect: A. the foundation; B. the basement; C. the crawlspace; and D. structural components. II. The inspector shall describe: A. the type of foundation; and B. the location of the access to the under-floor space. III. The inspector shall report as in need of correction: A. observed indications of wood in contact with or near soil; B. observed indications of active water penetration; C. observed indications of possible foundation movement, such as sheetrock cracks, brick cracks, out-of-square door frames, and unlevel floors; and D. any observed cutting, notching and boring of framing members that may, in the inspector's opinion, present a structural or safety concern. IV. The inspector is not required to: A. enter any crawlspace that is not readily accessible, or where entry could cause damage or pose a hazard to him/herself. B. move stored items or debris. C. operate sump pumps with inaccessible floats. D. identify the size, spacing, span or location or determine the adequacy of foundation bolting, bracing, joists, joist spans or support systems. E. provide any engineering or architectural service. F. report on the adequacy of any structural system or component.

Credit
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8.2.1 - Foundation

Evidence of Water Intrusion
Basement Multiple Locations

Signs of past / present water intrusion is noted. Inquire with the seller regarding past water entry. Make all necessary grading, drainage, and gutter repairs. If the intrusion is currently occurring recommend further evaluation by a basement waterproofing contractor to repair as necessary.

Water Waterproofing Contractor
Credit
Comment
8.2.2 - Foundation

Foundation Cracks - Moderate
Multiple Locations

Moderate cracking is noted at the foundation. This is typically consistent with soil movement or soil pressure and could lead to serious damage to structural components, foundation and/or slabs.

Make all necessary grading, drainage, and gutter repairs. Recommend a structural engineer or qualified foundation repair specialist evaluate and provide a report on course of action and remedy. If a structural engineer designs a repair that same engineer should return after the repairs are made to certify the repairs.

Here is an informational article on foundation cracks.

Foundation Foundation Contractor
Credit
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8.4.1 - Floor Structure

Evidence of Structural Damage
Basement Front

Structural damage was observed in the underlying floor structure. The sill plate and multiple floor joists are damaged from termites and moisture damage.
Recommend a structural engineer evaluate and design a proper repair, a qualified contractor implement a repair, and the engineer return to approve that repair.

House construction Structural Engineer
Credit
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8.4.2 - Floor Structure

Joist is Cut, Notched, or Drilled
Basement

A joist was cut, notched, or excessively drilled. Joists have limitations on the amount of cutting, notching, or drilling that can be done without compromising the

structural integrity. Typically no modifications should be made to the middle 1/3 of the joist. Recommend a structural engineer design a repair and a qualified contractor implement the repair.

House construction Structural Engineer
Credit
Comment
8.5.1 - Wall Structure

Evidence of Water Intrusion
Garage

Wall structure showed signs of water intrusion and evidence of hidden structural damage. Cracking is noted in the wall and ceiling, shims have been added to the top plate to support the roof trusses, and the window is visibly crooked. The soil is higher than the foundation at the exterior of this area and water entry, termite evidence, and damaged drywall is visible.

Invasive evaluation needs to take place to determine the extent of the damage and to determine repairs. Recommend evaluating the lower 12 - 24 inches of the wall framing by removing the drywall in this area.

House construction Structural Engineer
Credit
Comment
8.5.2 - Wall Structure

Termite Damage To Wall Structure
Multiple Locations

Areas of the wall structure have been damaged by termites. Active termites were noted at the baseboard of the finished wall in the basement. Termite activity was visible in the attic of the garage. Invasive techniques will be necessary to determine the extent of the damage. 

Contractor Qualified Professional

9 - Heating

Equipment Location
Basement
Thermostat Location
Living Room
Heat Type
Forced Air, Heat Pump
Energy Source / Brand
Electric, Lennox
Distribution System
Non-insulated, Ductwork
Equipment Model #
CB30U-31-1P
Equipment Serial #
5898F 62161
Year of Manufacture
1998
  • The average lifespan of a furnace is 16 - 20 years.
Heating Equipment: Equipment Image

I. The inspector shall inspect: A. the heating system, using normal operating controls. II. The inspector shall describe: A. the location of the thermostat for the heating system; B. the energy source; and C. the heating method. III. The inspector shall report as in need of correction: A. any heating system that did not operate; and B. if the heating system was deemed inaccessible. IV. The inspector is not required to: A. inspect or evaluate the interior of flues or chimneys, fire chambers, heat exchangers, combustion air systems, fresh-air intakes, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, electronic air filters, geothermal systems, or solar heating systems. B. inspect fuel tanks or underground or concealed fuel supply systems. C. determine the uniformity, temperature, flow, balance, distribution, size, capacity, BTU, or supply adequacy of the heating system. D. light or ignite pilot flames. E. activate heating, heat pump systems, or other heating systems when ambient temperatures or other circumstances are not conducive to safe operation or may damage the equipment. F. override electronic thermostats. G. evaluate fuel quality. H. verify thermostat calibration, heat anticipation, or automatic setbacks, timers, programs or clocks.

Credit
Comment
9.2.1 - Heating Equipment

Beyond it's Expected Useful Life
Basement

The life expectancy of a furnace is ~18 - 20 years. This system is 20 years old. Old furnaces may be inefficient and have a high probability of failure in the near future. 

Have a licensed HVAC technician fully evaluate the system. Discuss pros/cons to replacement at this time. If replacement is not elected at this time, budget for replacement in the near future.

Here are some questions to help determine if replacement is a good option at this time.

Fire HVAC Professional
Credit
Comment
9.2.2 - Heating Equipment

Needs Servicing/Cleaning

Furnace should be cleaned and serviced annually. Ask the property owners when the furnace was last serviced. If it was more than a year ago, recommend a licensed HVAC contractor clean and service the heating system. Follow all repair recommendations made at the time of servicing.

Here is a resource on the importance of furnace maintenance.

Fire HVAC Professional

10 - Cooling / Heat Pump

Equipment Location
Exterior Left
Brand / Type
Lennox
Size (Tons)
2
Equipment Model #
HP26-024-7P
Equipment Serial #
5898F 40680
Year of Manufacture
1998
  • The average lifespan of an AC system is 12 - 15 years.
Cooling Equipment: Equipment Image
Limitations: Low Temperature

The A/C unit was not tested due to low outdoor temperature. This may cause damage to the unit. 

I. The inspector shall inspect: A. the cooling system, using normal operating controls. II. The inspector shall describe: A. the location of the thermostat for the cooling system; and B. the cooling method. III. The inspector shall report as in need of correction: A. any cooling system that did not operate; and B. if the cooling system was deemed inaccessible. IV. The inspector is not required to: A. determine the uniformity, temperature, flow, balance, distribution, size, capacity, BTU, or supply adequacy of the cooling system. B. inspect portable window units, through-wall units, or electronic air filters. C. operate equipment or systems if the exterior temperature is below 65 Fahrenheit, or when other circumstances are not conducive to safe operation or may damage the equipment. D. inspect or determine thermostat calibration, cooling anticipation, or automatic setbacks or clocks. E. examine electrical current, coolant fluids or gases, or coolant leakage.

Credit
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10.2.1 - Cooling Equipment

Beyond it's Expected Useful Life

The life expectancy of a central air conditioning unit is ~12 - 15 years. This system is 20 years old. Old air conditioners may be inefficient and have a high probability of failure in the near future. 

Have a licensed HVAC technician fully evaluate the system. Discuss pros/cons to replacement at this time. If replacement is not elected at this time, budget for replacement in the near future. 

Fire HVAC Professional
Credit
Comment
10.2.2 - Cooling Equipment

Needs Servicing / Cleaning

Central air systems should be cleaned and serviced annually. The system was forming ice and running continuously during the inspection. Have a licensed HVAC contractor clean and service the cooling system. Follow all repair recommendations made at the time of servicing

Here is a resource on how to take care of your air conditioning unit.

Fire HVAC Professional

11 - Heating 2

Equipment Location
Basement
Thermostat Location
Hallway
Heat Type
Forced Air, Heat Pump
Energy Source / Brand
Electric, Carrier
Distribution System
Non-insulated, Ductwork
Equipment Model #
FE4ANB006
Equipment Serial #
4606A84030
Year of Manufacture
2006
  • The average lifespan of a furnace is 16 - 20 years.
Humidifier: Information

The following guideline is recommended by most major manufacturers of humidifiers:

Outside Temperature/ Relative Humidity Setting

[ -20 F / 15% or less]

[-10 F / 15% to 20%]

[0 F / 20% to 25%]

[+10 F / 25% to 30%]

[+20 F / 30% to 35%]

Acceptable Ranges of Temperature & Relative Humidity During Winter (in F): The humidity level that should be maintained in your home during the winter varies with the outside temperature. The colder it is outside, the lower the humidity level must be inside your home. All major manufactures of humidifiers list the recommended humidity settings based on outside temperatures.

Heating Equipment: Equipment Image
Humidifier: Humidifier

There is a humidifier installed. If functioning properly, it can add comfort to the home during the heating season.The scope of this inspection does not include determining if the unit is operational since activation is humidity controlled. Most units will require service annually.

I. The inspector shall inspect: A. the heating system, using normal operating controls. II. The inspector shall describe: A. the location of the thermostat for the heating system; B. the energy source; and C. the heating method. III. The inspector shall report as in need of correction: A. any heating system that did not operate; and B. if the heating system was deemed inaccessible. IV. The inspector is not required to: A. inspect or evaluate the interior of flues or chimneys, fire chambers, heat exchangers, combustion air systems, fresh-air intakes, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, electronic air filters, geothermal systems, or solar heating systems. B. inspect fuel tanks or underground or concealed fuel supply systems. C. determine the uniformity, temperature, flow, balance, distribution, size, capacity, BTU, or supply adequacy of the heating system. D. light or ignite pilot flames. E. activate heating, heat pump systems, or other heating systems when ambient temperatures or other circumstances are not conducive to safe operation or may damage the equipment. F. override electronic thermostats. G. evaluate fuel quality. H. verify thermostat calibration, heat anticipation, or automatic setbacks, timers, programs or clocks.

Credit
Comment
11.2.1 - Humidifier

Leaking
Basement

The humidifier is leaking and may damage the furnace cabinet or internal components. Have a licensed HVAC contractor repair.

Contractor Qualified Professional
Credit
Comment
11.3.1 - Heating Equipment

Needs Servicing/Cleaning

Furnace should be cleaned and serviced annually. Ask the property owners when the furnace was last serviced. If it was more than a year ago, recommend a licensed HVAC contractor clean and service the heating system. Follow all repair recommendations made at the time of servicing.

Here is a resource on the importance of furnace maintenance.

Fire HVAC Professional
Credit
Comment
11.5.1 - Distribution Systems

Duct Damaged

Air supply duct was damaged. Recommend a qualified HVAC contractor repair.

Fire HVAC Professional

12 - Cooling / Heat Pump 2

Equipment Location
Exterior Rear
Brand / Type
Carrier, Heat Pump
Size (Tons)
5
Equipment Model #
25HBC560A300
Equipment Serial #
2617E15775
Year of Manufacture
2017
  • The average lifespan of an AC system is 12 - 15 years.
Cooling Equipment: Equipment Image
Limitations: Low Temperature

The A/C unit was not tested due to low outdoor temperature. This may cause damage to the unit. 

I. The inspector shall inspect: A. the cooling system, using normal operating controls. II. The inspector shall describe: A. the location of the thermostat for the cooling system; and B. the cooling method. III. The inspector shall report as in need of correction: A. any cooling system that did not operate; and B. if the cooling system was deemed inaccessible. IV. The inspector is not required to: A. determine the uniformity, temperature, flow, balance, distribution, size, capacity, BTU, or supply adequacy of the cooling system. B. inspect portable window units, through-wall units, or electronic air filters. C. operate equipment or systems if the exterior temperature is below 65 Fahrenheit, or when other circumstances are not conducive to safe operation or may damage the equipment. D. inspect or determine thermostat calibration, cooling anticipation, or automatic setbacks or clocks. E. examine electrical current, coolant fluids or gases, or coolant leakage.

Credit
Comment
12.2.1 - Cooling Equipment

Needs Servicing / Cleaning

Central air systems should be cleaned and serviced annually. Ask the property owners when the furnace was last serviced.If it was more than a year ago, recommend a licensed HVAC contractor clean and service the cooling system. Follow all repair recommendations made at the time of servicing

Here is a resource on how to take care of your air conditioning unit.

Fire HVAC Professional

13 - Plumbing

Water Source
Public
Sewer System
Private
Water Supply Material
Copper
Water Distribution Material
Copper
Drain, Waste, & Vent Material
PVC
Fuel / Gas Source
None
Water Heater Energy Source / Brand
Electric, Bradford White, Ruud


Water Heater Location
Basement
Water Heater Capacity
80 gallons
Water Heater Model #
RUEPRO80-2
Water Heater Serial #
RU 0798C08818
Water Heater Year of Manufacture
1998
  • The average lifespan of a water heater is 8 to 12 years.
Water Heater 2 Capacity
50 gallons
Water Heater 2 Model #
RE350T6
Water Heater 2 Serial #
PC39185431
Water Heater 2 Year of Manufacture
2017
  • The average lifespan of a water heater is 8 to 12 years.
Water Shut-off Location
Basement
Water Heating Appliance: Equipment Image
Water Heating Appliance 2: Equipment Image
Sump Pump: Location
Basement
Water Supply Systems: Maintenance Recommendations

WATER HEATER: We recommend flushing & servicing your water heater tank annually for optimal performance. Water temperature should be set to at least 120 degrees F to kill microbes and no higher than 130 degrees F to prevent scalding.

Here is a nice maintenance guide from Lowe's to help.

HOSE FAUCETS: Remember to shut your faucet off annually.

Here is a quick article to ensure you're hose faucets are ready for winter.

Garbage Disposal: Not Recommended For Use With Septic Systems
While a garbage disposal can be used with a septic system, such a large number of precautions must be taken it is better off to abandon the disposal altogether.
Here is a blog post discussing some DO's and DON'Ts regarding a disposal / septic system combination.
Limitations: Sewer Camera Evaluation

Underground utilities are not visible during a standard home inspection, and are therefore specifically excluded from the scope of this report. Waste lines are susceptible to a variety of problems, including blockage and collapse. Tree roots may infiltrate the interior of waste lines, acting as a source of blockage in all pipe and material types. Older drain pipes, which include Orangeburg Pipe and clay tile (pipe) are commonly known to suffer problems like sudden failure, blockage or collapse. Cast Iron pipe can deteriorate from the inside out. For this reason, the Inspector suggests you consider getting a video scan of the sanitary drain line prior to closing.

Limitations: Drain / Waste / Vent Plumbing - Not Visible

Areas of the DWV system was not visible or not accessible because the pipes were concealed.

Limitations: Supply Plumbing - Not Visible

Areas of the supply plumbing in the home are located inside of walls or floors and was not visible at the time of inspection.

Limitations: No Testing Is Done For Natural Gas Leaks

Testing for natural gas leaks requires special equipment and will not be done unless specifically purchased of contracted for. If purchased or contracted for, only the visible fuel lines will be tested for leaks with an electronic gas detector. Inaccessible lines hidden inside of walls, appliance connectors, and appliances will not be tested. 

Limitations: Septic System

A septic system is beyond the scope of this inspection. We recommend you have the system inspected by the local County Health Department or a licensed plumbing contractor.

I. The inspector shall inspect: A. the main water supply shut-off valve; B. the main fuel supply shut-off valve; C. the water heating equipment, including the energy source, venting connections, temperature/pressure-relief (TPR) valves, Watts 210 valves, and seismic bracing; D. interior water supply, including all fixtures and faucets, by running the water; E. all toilets for proper operation by flushing; F. all sinks, tubs and showers for functional drainage; G. the drain, waste and vent system; and H. drainage sump pumps with accessible floats. II. The inspector shall describe: A. whether the water supply is public or private based upon observed evidence; B. the location of the main water supply shut-off valve; C. the location of the main fuel supply shut-off valve; D. the location of any observed fuel-storage system; and E. the capacity of the water heating equipment, if labeled. III. The inspector shall report as in need of correction: A. deficiencies in the water supply by viewing the functional flow in two fixtures operated simultaneously; B. deficiencies in the installation of hot and cold water faucets; C. mechanical drain stops that were missing or did not operate if installed in sinks, lavatories and tubs; and D. toilets that were damaged, had loose connections to the floor, were leaking, or had tank components that did not operate. IV. The inspector is not required to: A. light or ignite pilot flames. B. measure the capacity, temperature, age, life expectancy or adequacy of the water heater. C. inspect the interior of flues or chimneys, combustion air systems, water softener or filtering systems, well pumps or tanks, safety or shut-off valves, floor drains, lawn sprinkler systems, or fire sprinkler systems. D. determine the exact flow rate, volume, pressure, temperature or adequacy of the water supply. E. determine the water quality, potability or reliability of the water supply or source. F. open sealed plumbing access panels. G. inspect clothes washing machines or their connections. H. operate any valve. I. test shower pans, tub and shower surrounds or enclosures for leakage or functional overflow protection. J. evaluate the compliance with conservation, energy or building standards, or the proper design or sizing of any water, waste or venting components, fixtures or piping. K. determine the effectiveness of anti-siphon, backflow prevention or drain-stop devices. L. determine whether there are sufficient cleanouts for effective cleaning of drains. M. evaluate fuel storage tanks or supply systems. N. inspect wastewater treatment systems. O. inspect water treatment systems or water filters. P. inspect water storage tanks, pressure pumps, or bladder tanks. Q. evaluate wait time to obtain hot water at fixtures, or perform testing of any kind to water heater elements. R. evaluate or determine the adequacy of combustion air. S. test, operate, open or close: safety controls, manual stop valves, temperature/pressure-relief valves, control valves, or check valves. T. examine ancillary or auxiliary systems or components, such as, but not limited to, those related to solar water heating and hot water circulation. U. determine the existence or condition of polybutylene plumbing. V. inspect or test for gas or fuel leaks, or indications thereof.

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13.2.1 - Water Heating Appliance

Beyond Its Expected Useful Life

Based on the manufacturer's suggested service life, the life expectancy of a water heater is about 8 to 12 years. This water heater is 20 years old. That varies with the location and design of the unit, quality of installation, maintenance schedule and water quality.

Here is an article that will help you decide when to replace your water heater.

Recommend a licensed plumbing contractor provide maintenance. Budget to replace in the near future.

Pipes Plumbing Contractor
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13.2.2 - Water Heating Appliance

Expansion Tank is Not Supported
Basement

When an expansion tank fills with water it can weigh more than 16 pounds (2 gallon tank) or 40 pounds (5 gallon tank). The neck of the tank and surrounding plumbing is not designed to hold that weight. Ideally the expansion tank should be installed vertically. If it is installed horizontally the expansion tank should be supported by another method such as strapping to a floor joist.

Recommend fully supporting the expansion tank.

Tools Handyman/DIY
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13.3.1 - Water Heating Appliance 2

Expansion Tank is Not Supported

When an expansion tank fills with water it can weigh more than 16 pounds (2 gallon tank) or 40 pounds (5 gallon tank). The neck of the tank and surrounding plumbing is not designed to hold that weight. Ideally the expansion tank should be installed vertically. If it is installed horizontally the expansion tank should be supported by another method such as strapping to a floor joist.

Recommend fully supporting the expansion tank.

Tools Handyman/DIY
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13.11.1 - Sinks

Faucet is in Need of Service
2nd Floor Rear Bathroom

The faucet does not properly function and may need some repairs / replacement. The faucet leaks when operated.

Recommend having a licensed plumbing contractor evaluate and repair or replace as necessary.

Pipes Plumbing Contractor
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13.11.2 - Sinks

Leaking Drain
Kitchen

Leaking can cause damage to the surrounding materials or cause mold to grow. The drain lines should be attempted to be tightened. If tightening does not work, have a licensed plumbing contractor repair or replace as necessary.

Pipes Plumbing Contractor
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13.12.1 - Shower/Tub

Drain Stopper is Not Working
Master Bathroom

Recommend repairing the drain stop.

Here is an article explaining how a drain stopper can be repaired.

Pipes Plumbing Contractor
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13.12.2 - Shower/Tub

Enlosure Door Track is Missing / Damaged
2nd Floor Rear Bathroom

This can cause the door to fall off during use or cleaning. A person can be seriously injured.
Restore the functionality of the door track.
Wrenches Handyman
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13.12.3 - Shower/Tub

Hot and Cold Water Lines Are Reversed
2nd Floor Front Bathroom

This can result in scalding, especially if a child is using the shower/tub.
Recommend repair by a licensed plumbing contractor.
Pipes Plumbing Contractor
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13.12.4 - Shower/Tub

Spout Diverter is Inoperable
2nd Floor Rear Bathroom

The shower can not be used. Recommend repairing or replacing the spout / spout diverter.

Pipes Plumbing Contractor
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13.12.5 - Shower/Tub

Water Flow is Weak
2nd Floor Rear Bathroom

Weak water flow can be from a faulty fixture, improper installation, or in some cases, old galvanized plumbing. Further evaluation will be necessary to determine the cause and best solution.
Pipes Plumbing Contractor
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13.13.1 - Drain, Waste, & Vent Systems

Improper Installation
Basement

One or more areas of the plumbing showed installation techniques inconsistent with professional plumbing practices. A sink is connected to an open pipe that seems to have been intended to drain condensate. Have a plumbing contractor installed the sink to conform with all current standard practices.

Pipes Plumbing Contractor

14 - Electrical

Service Conductors
Below Ground, 120V, 240V
Main Panel Location
Basement
Panel Capacity
150 AMP, Double Service
Panel Manufacturer
General Electric
Panel Type
Circuit Breaker
Wiring Method
Copper, Romex
Main Service Panel: Equipment Image
Sub-Panel: Breakers Off
Sub-Panel: Equipment Image
Smoke Detectors: Recommended Placement
Smoke detectors have a lifespan of 10 years and should be replaced after they reach that age. Smoke alarms are required in each bedroom, outside each sleeping area (hallway) and each additional story (including basement).

Here is some useful information regarding smoke alarms.

I. The inspector shall inspect: A. the service drop; B. the overhead service conductors and attachment point; C. the service head, gooseneck and drip loops; D. the service mast, service conduit and raceway; E. the electric meter and base; F. service-entrance conductors; G. the main service disconnect; H. panelboards and over-current protection devices (circuit breakers and fuses); I. service grounding and bonding; J. a representative number of switches, lighting fixtures and receptacles, including receptacles observed and deemed to be arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI)-protected using the AFCI test button, where possible; K. all ground-fault circuit interrupter receptacles and circuit breakers observed and deemed to be GFCIs using a GFCI tester, where possible; and L. smoke and carbon-monoxide detectors. II. The inspector shall describe: A. the main service disconnect's amperage rating, if labeled; and B. the type of wiring observed. III. The inspector shall report as in need of correction: A. deficiencies in the integrity of the serviceentrance conductors insulation, drip loop, and vertical clearances from grade and roofs; B. any unused circuit-breaker panel opening that was not filled; C. the presence of solid conductor aluminum branch-circuit wiring, if readily visible; D. any tested receptacle in which power was not present, polarity was incorrect, the cover was not in place, the GFCI devices were not properly installed or did not operate properly, evidence of arcing or excessive heat, and where the receptacle was not grounded or was not secured to the wall; and E. the absence of smoke detectors. IV. The inspector is not required to: A. insert any tool, probe or device into the main panelboard, sub-panels, distribution panelboards, or electrical fixtures. B. operate electrical systems that are shut down. C. remove panelboard cabinet covers or dead fronts. D. operate or re-set over-current protection devices or overload devices. E. operate or test smoke or carbon-monoxide detectors or alarms F. inspect, operate or test any security, fire or alarms systems or components, or other warning or signaling systems. G. measure or determine the amperage or voltage of the main service equipment, if not visibly labeled. H. inspect ancillary wiring or remote-control devices. I. activate any electrical systems or branch circuits that are not energized. J. inspect low-voltage systems, electrical de-icing tapes, swimming pool wiring, or any timecontrolled devices. K. verify the service ground. L. inspect private or emergency electrical supply sources, including, but not limited to: generators, windmills, photovoltaic solar collectors, or battery or electrical storage facility. M. inspect spark or lightning arrestors. N. inspect or test de-icing equipment. O. conduct voltage-drop calculations. P. determine the accuracy of labeling. Q. inspect exterior lighting.

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14.3.1 - Main Service Panel

Double Tapped Circuit Breakers
Basement

"Double Tapped" means two wires are connected to one circuit breaker. This can cause a safety issue if the wires do not make solid contact with the breaker.
Recommend repair by a licensed electrical contractor. This may be repaired at the next time an electrician is performing work at the house.
Electric Electrical Contractor
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14.5.1 - Branch Wiring Circuits

Abandoned Wiring
Basement

There is no way to know if abandoned wiring is active, or could be made active in some way. Abandoned wiring should be properly protected in a junction box or removed to eliminate the possibility of accidental shock and to prevent fires.

Have a licensed electrical contractor determine if the wiring is necessary and remove or secure as recommended.

Electric Electrical Contractor
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14.5.2 - Branch Wiring Circuits

Insufficiently Protected
Exterior Rear

Wires can be damaged. Exposed wiring susceptible to damage is recommended to be installed in conduit.

Electric Electrical Contractor
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14.5.3 - Branch Wiring Circuits

Junction Box Is Missing a Cover
Basement

Should arcing or fire start it can not be contained.

Install a junction box cover.

Tools Handyman/DIY
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14.6.1 - Lighting Fixtures, Switches & Receptacles

Cover Plates Damaged
Front

One or more receptacles have a damaged cover plate. Recommend replacement.
Electric Electrical Contractor
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14.6.2 - Lighting Fixtures, Switches & Receptacles

Reverse Polarity
Basement

One or more receptacles have been wired with reverse polarity. This can create a shock hazard and potentially damage appliances or items connected to this receptacle.
Recommend licensed electrical contractor evaluate and repair as necessary.
Electric Electrical Contractor
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14.6.3 - Lighting Fixtures, Switches & Receptacles

Ungrounded Receptacle
Front Right Bedroom Multiple Locations

One or more receptacles are ungrounded. To eliminate safety hazards, all 3-prong receptacles should be grounded. Where grounding is not possible (No ground wire present) a 2-prong receptacle or GFCI protected receptacles can be installed.

NOTE: GFCI protection of an ungrounded 3-prong outlet will not protect electronics. A physical grounding system is required to protect electronics or allow surge protectors to function properly. We recommend at least one physically grounded outlet in each room to protect electronics.

Have a licensed electrical contractor make further evaluation and repair as necessary for the safest operation.

Electric Electrical Contractor
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14.6.4 - Lighting Fixtures, Switches & Receptacles

Switches Make Arcing / Popping Sound
Left Side Living Room

This may be a sign of a faulty switch. Have a licensed electrical contractor make further evaluation and repair as necessary.
Electric Electrical Contractor
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14.7.1 - GFCI & AFCI

Not Tripping or Resetting
Master Bathroom Multiple Locations

A GFCI that does not trip or reset does not provide the safety protection it was designed for.
Have a licensed electrical contractor replace the receptacle.
Electric Electrical Contractor
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14.9.1 - Smoke Detectors

Missing in Recommended Locations
Multiple Locations

Recommend adding smoke detectors in the recommended locations. Alarm system smoke detectors are not considered during this inspection. They are often not activated or old. Smoke alarms are recommended in each bedroom, outside each sleeping area (hallway) and on each additional story (including basement).

More information can be found on the NFPA website.

Tools Handyman/DIY

15 - Miscellaneous

Miscellaneous Information

This section contains information that is outside of the scope of the general home inspection but is considered pertinent information for health or safety reasons. This section is provided as a courtesy at no charge.

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15.1.1 - Rodent Activity

Present
Attic

Rodents are best dealt with using a combination of exclusion (keeping mice out) and treatment by a professional pest control company. Rodents can cause hidden damage to insulation and other building materials. 

Pest control Pest Control Pro